Rioting erupts after mysterious explosion at Chicago’s Haymarket Square.
Seven accused in Haymarket explosion sentenced to death. Five later executed.
United Mine Workers organize in Columbus, Ohio.
The compressed air drill and other labor-saving advances reduce the number of unskilled miners, hurting wages. Pinkerton spies infiltrate unions. Unionists are blacklisted.
Striking miners destroy the Frisco mill in the Coeur d’Alenes. Troops arrive. Idaho’s Governor Norman Willey, with backing from President Benjamin Harrison, declares martial law. Pennsylvania militia breaks Carnegie steelworker strike at Homestead.
Testimony by Pinkerton spies help convict members of the western federation of miners. Financial recession closes mines and aggravates labor tensions.
Western Federation of Miners strike at Cripple Creek, Colorado. “Big Bill” Haywood organizes in the Owyhees. Eugene Debs leads American Railway Union strike against the Pullman Palace Car Company near Chicago.
Frank Steunenberg, a Democrat, elected Idaho governor.
Striking miners dynamite Bunker Hill & Sullivan smelter. Steunenberg requests federal troops. Hundreds arrested and held in bullpens.
Steunenberg defeated for reelection.
Mary Harris “Mother” Jones leads the March of the Mill Children to President Roosevelt’s home in New York.
A battle between the Colorado Militia and striking miners at Dunnville ends with six union members dead.
Debs and Mother Jones join forces with Haywood in Industrial Workers of the World (IWW). Former Governor Steunenberg assassinated in Caldwell.
Thomas Hogan, alias Harry Orchard, confesses to Steunenberg’s murder. Orchard accuses Denver labor bosses. Haywood, Moyer, and Pettibone arrested and extradited.
Murder conspiracy trial begins. Darrow arrives in Boise. Celebrity trial watchers gather at Idahna. Jury acquits Haywood.
Jury acquits union president George Pettibone in Boise. Orchard spared execution, receives life in prison. Federal court upholds anti-union yellow dog contracts.